Thursday, 23 August 2012

HISTORY OF TELANGANA

               Telugu is a region of India (and also it is a proposed state in INDIAN UNION)bordering the states of Maharashtra on North-West, Karnataka on West, Chattisgargh and Orissa on North, and Coastal Andhra region on East and Rayalaseema region on South; both these regions were part of Andhra state and were merged with Telangana region to form the current Andhra Pradesh state in 1956. The region has an area of 114,840 km2, and population of 30,696,520 per the 2001 census. The name is derived from the corrupted form of reference of the Telugu speaking population as "Telang" by the generations of Muslim rulers. The region lies on the Deccan plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Andhra Pradesh state. Telangana region has 10 districts: Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the state capital of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. The Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east.
              On December 9, 2009, the Government of India announced that the process for the formation of Telangana state would be considered upon introduction and passage of a separation statement by the state assembly of Andhra Pradesh. The Government of India has since constituted a five member committee headed by Justice B. N. Srikrishna to study the feasibility of a separate Telangana state within the Indian Union.
HISTORY:
               The Telangana region is believed by some scholars to have been mentioned in the Mahabharata as the Telinga Kingdom[citation needed], inhabited by the tribe known as Telavana, who fought on the Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata. There is also Pandavula Guhalu in Warangal district (where the Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham). 
                In Treta yuga, it is believed that Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana spent their life in exile at Parnashala on the banks of the Godavari river, which is about 25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District in the Telangana region.
              Telangana has been the homeland to the Sathavahanas and Kakatiyas. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the first capital of the Sathavahanas before Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed coinage of Simukha, the first Satavahana emperor.
              The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiyas, a Telugu dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 CE to 1323. 
                 Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta and Anakapalle in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar & Bastar (in modern day Chattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam & Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. 
               It was also during his reign that the Golkonda fort was first constructed by the Kakatiyas. Rani Rudramadevi and Prataparudra were prominent kings from the Kakatiya dynasty.
                 Telangana then came under Muslim rule in 14th century by the Delhi Sultanate, followed by Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis, and the Mughals. 
              As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate state known as Hyderabad. Later, Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire, and was the largest and most populous princely state in India. 
                                       Madras Presidency Assembly
           Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India's Madras Presidency.
Telangana Rebellion:
                The Telangana Rebellion was a Communist led peasant revolt that took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. This was led by the Communist Party of India.
             The revolt began in the Nalgonda district and quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the Nizam and the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) who were loyal to the Nizam. The initial modest aims were to do away with the illegal and excessive exploitation meted out by these feudal lords in the name of bonded labour. The most strident demand was for the writing off of all debts of the peasants that were manipulated by the feudal lords.                  
                 Few among the well-known individuals at the forefront of the movement were great leaders like Puchalapalli Sundaraiah, Makineni Basavapunaiah , Chandra Rajeswara Rao, Raavi Narayana Reddy, Arjula Ramana Reddy, the Urdu poet Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Hassan Nasir, Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy, Mallu Venkata Narasimha Reddy , Mallu Swarajyam , Arutla Ramchandra Reddy and his wife Arutla Kamala Bai.
            The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the constraints of Indian democracy.
Post-independence history
                    When India became independent from the British Empire, the Nizam of Hyderabad wanted Hyderabad State to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on September 17, 1948, in an operation by the Indian Army called Operation Polo. When India became independent, the Telugu-speaking people were distributed in about 22 districts, 9 of them in the Telangana region of Nizam's Dominions (Hyderabad State), 12 in the Madras Presidency (Andhra region), and one in French-controlled Yanam. A Communist led peasant revolt started in 1946 and lasted until 1951, weakening the viability of Hyderabad as an Indian state in its present form.
           The Central Government appointed a civil servant, Keralite Vellodi Narayana Menon K, as Chief Minister of Hyderabad state on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras state and Bombay state. In 1952, Telangana had tasted democracy for the first time when it participated in general elections and elected Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao as the Chief minister of Hyderabad State. The Telugu speaking people in Madras state enjoyed some form of democracy since 1920. During this time there were violent Mulki agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement Mulki rules.
                    Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas (Andhra region) were carved out of an erstwhile Madras state by popular agitation by leaders like Potti Sri Ramulu to create Andhra State with Kurnool as its capital in 1953.
Separate Telangana state movement
1969 Movement
                                            Marri chenna Reddy
                   In the years after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state, people of Telangana expressed dissatisfaction over how the agreements and guarantees were implemented. 
                          Discontent with the 1956 Gentleman's agreement intensified in January 1969, when the guarantees that had been agreed on were supposed to lapse. Student agitation for the continuation of the agreement began at Osmania University in Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the region. 
                        Government employees and opposition members of the state legislative assembly swiftly threatened "direct action" in support of the students. This movement, also known as Telangana movement, led to widespread violence and deaths of hundreds of people including 369 students.
Although the Congress faced some dissension within its ranks, its leadership stood against additional linguistic states, which were branded as "anti-national." As a result, defectors from the Congress, led by M. Chenna Reddy, founded the Telangana People's Association (Telangana Praja Samithi). Despite electoral successes, however, some of the new party leaders gave up their agitation in September 1971 and, much to the chagrin of separatists, rejoined the safer political haven of the Congress ranks.
                  During the movement, the Government promised to correct what critics saw as violation to Gentleman's agreement in jobs, budget allocations, educational facilities . Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi was strongly against the division of the state but on her recommendation, P. V. Narasimha Rao became first Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh from Telangana on September 30, 1971.
                  In the year 1972, all candidates belonging to STPS under the leadership of M Sridhar Reddy contested the assembly elections, however, only Mr Thakkalapalli Purushotham Rao got elected from Wardhannapet constituency of Warangal District and rest were defeated. In 1969, Mr Purushotham Rao unveiled Telangana map in the state assembly.Purushotham Rao was for outright separation during the 1969 movement and he supported the student views.
                    At the end of 1972, when the Supreme Court upheld the Mulki rules, Jai Andhra movement started in Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions protesting the protections mentioned in the Gentleman's agreement.[8] P. V. Narasimha Rao had to resign as Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh on January 10, 1973. President's rule was declared in the state. Finally, a political settlement was arrived at under the aegis of the Central Government. A Six-Point Formula was agreed upon by the leaders of the two regions to prevent any recurrence of such agitations in future. The `Six-Point Formula' included (1) the abolition of Mulki rules and the Telangana Regional Committee (protections mentioned in the Gentleman's agreement) and (2) the establishment of a Central University at Hyderabad to augment educational facilities. (3) In regards to jobs, state divided into six zones, within the framework of three regions, namely, Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema, and Telangana (Zone V, and Zone VI) with Hyderabad under Zone VI. Each zone should prefer local candidates for state government jobs. However according to GOM, the regions were rezoned with Zone I,II,III Coastal Andhra, Zone IV Rayalaseema, Zone V,IV Telangana.
Movement in 1990-2004              
                 The emotions and forces generated by the movement in 1969 were not strong enough, however, for a continuing drive for a separate state until 1990s when Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), promised a separate Telangana state if they came to power. BJP created Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Uttarkhand states in year 2000 as promised. But the BJP could not create a separate Telangana state because of the opposition from its coalition partner, Telugu Desam Party. These developments brought new life into the separatist Telangana movement by year 2000. Congress party MLAs from the Telangana region, supported a separate Telangana state and formed the Telangana Congress Legislators Forum. In another development, a new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi (or TRS), led by Kalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao (KCR), was formed with the single point agenda of creating a separate Telangana state, with Hyderabad as its capital.
Grievances of Telangana Proponents:
                  Telangana is the largest single region of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh state covering 41.47% of its total area, is inhabited by 40.54% of the state’s population, contributes about 76% to the state’s revenues (excluding central government contribution). From Central govt: 19.86%, From Telangana: 61.47% (including 37.17% from Hyderabad), From Andhra: 14.71, From Rayalaseema: 3.90%.                     
                    Among others, alleged injustices in water, budget allocations, jobs are the grievances cited by Telangana proponents. Telangana supporters cite that the majority of water supply is from the Telangana region, yet canal irrigation disproportionately benefits the Coastal Andhra region with relative underdevelopment of Telangana. In addition, the share of education funding for Telangana ranges from 9.86% in government aided primary schools to government degree colleges which has a share of 37.85%. Above numbers includes the expenditure in Capital Hyderabad. In addition, budget allocations to Telangana are generally less than 1/3 of total Andhra Pradesh budget.
            In addition, there are allegations that the Telangana budget is being misappropriated. Telangana proponents cite that only 20% of total Government employees, less than 10% employees in secretariat, less than 5% of head of the departments in Andhra Pradesh are from Telangana, while those from other regions make up the bulk of employment. Andhra Pradesh was represented by Telangana chief ministers for only 6-1/2 years out of over five decades of its existence, with no chief minister from the region being in power continuously for more than 2-1/2 years.
          Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel all the agreements, accords, formulas, plans and assurances on the floor of legislature and Lok Sabha, in last 50+ years, could not be honoured and Telangana was forced to remain neglected, exploited and backward. They allege that the experiment to remain as one state proved to be a futile exercise and therefore, separation is found to be the best solution.
2009 and Later
                      In February 2009 the state government declared that it had no objection, in principle, to the formation of separate Telangana and that the time had come to move forward decisively on this issue. To resolve issues related to it the government constituted a joint house committee.              
               Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India, all the major parties in Andhra Pradesh supported the formation of Telangana. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) again announced their policy of having smaller states and would create two more states, Telangana and Gorkhaland, if they won the election. The Congress Party still says it is committed to Telangana statehood,[61] but claims Muslim minorities are opposed to creation of separate state along with majority of people. Some analysts, however, feel that the "Muslim reluctance card" has been deftly played by then Chief Minister Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, who is staunchly opposed to the formation of the new state.              
                  The Telugu Desam Party (TDP) had promised to work for Telangana statehood. Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) joined a Mahakutami (or grand alliance) with TDP and left parties to defeat the Congress party for denying statehood for Telangana.          
                       The Praja Rajyam Party (PRP), newly founded by film star Chiranjeevi, supported Telangana statehood prior to elections,but later changed its stance. Nava Telangana Party merged with PRP after it realized that there is not enough political space for two sub-regional Telangana parties with Telananga statehood as main agenda.
              Several political parties, including some Telangana congress leaders, criticized Chief Minister, Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy (YSR), when he changed his stand from pro-Telangana separation and gave anti-separation statements after the polls.
Congress returned to power both at center and state.
            In September 2009, Chief Minister Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy (YSR) died in a helicopter crash while flying in bad weather.
          On November 29, 2009, the TRS president, K. Chandrashekar Rao (KCR) started a fast-unto-death demanding that the Congress party introduce a Telangana bill in the Parliament. He was arrested by the government of Andhra Pradesh. Student organizations, employee unions and various organizations joined the movement. Telangana strikes shut down Telangana on Dec 6th and 7th. Student organizations planned a massive rally at the state Assembly on Dec 10th. Government warned that the rally did not have permission and deployed police troops through out Telangana. The apparent decline in KCR's health led to a sense of urgency to take a decision on the issue of Telangana statehood.
Proposed Telangana State Formation Process
                             On December 9, 2009, P. Chidambaram, the Union Minister of Home Affairs announced that the Indian government would start the process of forming a separate Telangana state, pending the introduction and passage of a separation resolution in the Andhra Pradesh assembly. KCR thus ended his 11 day fast, saying from his hospital bed that this was a "true victory of the people of Telangana."
                Pro-Telangana supporters celebrated the central government decision while those from the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions (Andhra region) protested. In fact, within a short time of the Home Minister's declaration, sensing the public mood, MLAs from the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions (Andhra region) submitted their resignations in protest of the process of creation of a new state within Andhra Pradesh. By the 16th of December, at least 147 legislators (including Praja Rajyam Founder Chiranjeevi) and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to begin discussions on forming a new state of Telangana. 22 Ministers from the State Cabinet, all from Andhra (Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema) regions submitted their resignations.
                        On December 16, media reports confirmed that there was a split in the Praja Rajyam Party (PRP) over the Telangana issue, with its leader Chiranjeevi as well as 16 out of 18 party MLAs(the remaining 2 hailed from Telangana) opposing the division of Andhra Pradesh while Telangana leaders in the party were unhappy with the shift in the party's views.
                      On December 23, the Government of India announced that no action on Telangana will be taken until a consensus is reached by all parties. The TRS reacted by calling for another general strike on 24th Dec '09, an action aimed at stalling the regional economy.
         A Joint Action Committee (JAC) was formed with the pro-separation members of the major political parties. There were reports that members of the JAC had widely divergent approaches on the issue of a separate Telangana. Subsequently, Andhra (Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema) region MLAs started withdrawing their resignations while MLAs and ministers from Telangana started submitting their resignations, demanding the Centre to take immediate steps to initiate the process of bifurcating Andhra Pradesh. The Home minister had an all party meeting on the 5th of January to elicit views of all parties in the State. Further, on the advice of Congress party's central leadership, all of the Ministers from Telangana withdrew their resignations. Rallies, hunger strikes, suicides continue, sometimes turning violent, through out Telangana to protest against the delay in bifurcating the State. The all-party Telangana Joint Action Committee (JAC) started relay hunger strikes and threatened resignations of all legislators on Jan 28, demanding the Centre to spell out its stand on separate Telangana and start the process of creating the State within a timeframe. The Union minister for Home Affairs P Chidambaram announced on January 28 that a Committee to examine the demand for a separate Telangana would be announced after a week. On the 3rd February the government announced the 5 member committee that would look into the issue of Bifurcation of state.
                 The Telangana Joint Action Committee said the agitations would continue until a Bill was passed in Parliament for the formation of a Telangana State. Agitation involved human chains, community kitchens on roads, amongst others On Feb 3rd JAC organized a longest human chain in India, a distance of 500 km, from north to South in Telangana.

The Jamaat-e-Islami Hind has supported a separate Telangana state by giving the slogan, "Justice for Telangana and Telangana for Justice" The Jamaat with its student wing Students Islamic Organisation of India organized a large rally at Nizam college grounds on February 7, 2010.
                 On February 12, Central government announced Terms of Reference to B.N. Srikrishna Committee with a deadline of December 31, 2010. Telangana-JAC rejected the terms of reference saying that it "undid" Union home minister's statement in New Delhi on December 9, 2009.
                  On February 16, Congress legislators from the Telangana region resigned from the Joint Action Committee due to "unilateral actions by KCR.
              As of February 22, 2010, more than 250 Telangana people committed suicides over the delay in the formation of Telangana state.
       Sri Krishna Committee solicited suggestions/views from the political parties, social organisations and other stakeholders on February 21. Committee received over 60,000 petitions by the deadline of April 10. The committee began personal interactions with the various stakeholders, including the political parties starting from April 16. The committee met with the leaders of TRS, PRP, CPI, MIM, TDP leaders from Seema-Andhra, TDP leaders from Telangana and various organizations from though out Andhra Pradesh

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